## Introduction

Multidimensional Scaling is a technique for visualizing distances between objects where the distance is known between the pairs of objects. This article describes how to go from a *distance matrix*:

To a *two-dimensional scatterplot*, where each of the objects is represented as a point:

## Requirements

A Displayr document containing the distance matrix that you want to use as input to the MDS analysis.

## Method 1

1. From the menus, select **Anything > Advanced Analysis > Dimension Reduction > Multidimensional Scaling (MDS)**

2. In the *object inspector* under **Inputs > Algorithm** select **MDS - Metric** or **MDS - Non-metric. **

*Metric MDS*minimizes the difference between distances in input and output spaces.*Non-metric MDS*aims to preserve the ranking of distances between input and output spaces.

Often we care more about relative positioning than absolute differences, in which case non-metric is preferred to metric MDS. For the example below, I've selected **Metric**.

3. Under **Inputs > Distance Matrix, **select your distance matrix object.

4. Click the **Calculate** button to generate the MDS output.

## Method 2

1. From the menus, select **Anything > Advanced Analysis > ****Dimension Reduction > Multidimensional Scaling (MDS)**

2. In the *object inspector* under **Inputs > Algorithm** select **MDS - Metric** or **MDS - Non-metric. **For the example below, I've selected **Metric**.

3. Under **Inputs > Distance Matrix, **select **Paste or Type Distance Matrix**.

4. Enter a symmetrical matrix of distances which should have 0 in the diagonal. For this example, I've entered distances between four Australia cities.

5. Click **OK**.

6. Click the **Calculate** button to generate the MDS output.

See Also

How to Create a Distance Matrix

How to do Multidimensional Scaling from a Variables

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